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Enhancing data management and governance


A comprehensive data governance plan must address key aspects such as standardized data onboarding, collaboration with stakeholders, anonymization of sensitive data, data lineage tracking, validation and cleansing, integration with external tools, maintenance of a robust data catalog, and adherence to regulations. A plan that includes these elements ensures data consistency, privacy, accuracy, and compliance, ultimately boosting overall operational effectiveness. The strategies provided in this pathway will help you accomplish these goals. You can work through them sequentially or in any order that suits your current level of progress.

This article is part of the Increase Efficiencies outcome. For additional pathways to help you succeed with this outcome, click here to see the Increase Efficiencies Risk overview.

Following data onboarding best practices

Implementing standardized data onboarding procedures in the Splunk platform ensures that data is ingested and managed consistently.

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In this article, you will learn about the following data onboarding best practices:

  1. Data validation
  2. Great 8 configurations
  3. Data normalization
  4. Data enrichment
  5. Data transformation
  6. Versioning and auditing
  7. Data quality monitoring
  8. Documentation

Data validation

Data validation ensures that the data being ingested into the Splunk platform is accurate, reliable, and adheres to predefined standards. These qualities set the foundation for accurate data analysis, reporting, and decision-making. Here's a more detailed explanation of the key aspects of data validation:

  • Data Format Correctness: Validate that the data is in the expected format. This includes verifying that date and time formats, numerical values, and string formats are correct. For example, if your data requires a specific date format (such as YYYY-MM-DD), a validation script should flag any data entries that don't adhere to this format.
  • Completeness: Check for missing or incomplete data. Ensure that all required fields are present and populated with valid values. For instance, if certain fields are mandatory for analysis, the validation process should identify records where these fields are missing.
  • Data Integrity: Verify the integrity of the data by checking for inconsistencies or errors within the dataset. This could involve cross-referencing related fields to ensure they align logically. For example, if you have a dataset with customer orders, the validation process could verify that the total order amount matches the sum of individual line items.
  • Adherence to Standards: Ensure that the data conforms to predefined standards, both internal and industry-specific. This might involve checking against defined naming conventions, units of measurement, or any other guidelines that are relevant to your organization's data practices. For more guidance, see the Open Worldwide Application Security Project (OWASP) Logging Cheat Sheet.
  • Custom Validation Rules: Depending on the nature of your data, you might need to implement custom validation rules. These rules could involve complex business logic that checks for specific conditions or patterns within the data.
  • Data Enrichment and Transformation Validation: If you perform any data enrichment or transformation during the onboarding process, validate that these processes are working as intended. Ensure that the enriched or transformed data still aligns with your validation criteria.

To implement data validation effectively, you can use validation scripts or tools. These scripts can be programmed to automatically run checks on the incoming data and flag any issues that are identified. The flagged data can then be reviewed and corrected before being ingested into the Splunk platform. Automation of this process not only saves time but also reduces the risk of human errors in the validation process.

Great 8 configurations

The props.conf configuration file is a power configuration option for controlling how data is ingested, parsed, and transformed during the onboarding process. Among other things, props.conf is used for defining field extractions, identifying and capturing specific pieces of information from your raw data.

The Great 8 configurations below provide a standard for transforming raw data into well formatted, searchable events within the Splunk platform. They ensure that events are accurately separated, timestamps are correctly captured, so that fields can be properly extracted for analysis. By adhering to these configurations, you enhance data consistency, accessibility, and reliability, setting the stage for accurate insights and efficient analysis.

The following list only provides a brief explanation of each of these configurations. For complete, hands-on configuration guidance, see Configuring new source types.

  1. SHOULD_LINEMERGE = false (always false): This configuration tells the Splunk platform not to merge multiple lines of data into a single event. This is particularly useful for log files where each line represents a separate event, preventing accidental merging of unrelated lines. For additional context, reference the props.conf spec around line breaking.
  2. LINE_BREAKER = regular expression for event breaks: The LINE_BREAKER configuration specifies a regular expression pattern that indicates where one event ends and another begins. This is essential for parsing multi-line logs into individual events for proper indexing and analysis. For additional context, reference the props.conf spec around line breaking.
  3. TIME_PREFIX = regex of the text that leads up to the timestamp: When data contains timestamps, TIME_PREFIX helps the Splunk platform identify the portion of the data that precedes the actual timestamp. This helps the Splunk platform correctly locate and extract the timestamp for indexing and time-based analysis.
  4. MAX_TIMESTAMP_LOOKAHEAD = how many characters for the timestamp: This configuration sets the maximum number of characters that the Splunk platform will look ahead from the TIME_PREFIX to find the timestamp. It ensures that the Splunk platform doesn't search too far ahead, optimizing performance while accurately capturing timestamps.
  5. TIME_FORMAT = strptime format of the timestamp: TIME_FORMAT specifies the format of the timestamp within the data. The Splunk platform uses this information to correctly interpret and index the timestamp, making it usable for time-based searches and analyses.
  6. TRUNCATE = 999999 (always a high number): TRUNCATE configuration helps prevent overly long events from causing performance issues. It limits the maximum length of an event, ensuring that extremely long lines don't negatively impact the performance of the Splunk platform.
  7. EVENT_BREAKER_ENABLE = true: This configuration indicates whether event breaking should be enabled. Setting it to true ensures that event breaking based on LINE_BREAKER is activated.
  8. EVENT_BREAKER = regular expression for event breaks: EVENT_BREAKER allows you to define an additional regular expression pattern for event breaking. This can be useful for scenarios where more complex event breaking is required.

Data normalization

Data normalization is a process of transforming data from various sources into a common and standardized format or structure. This is particularly important in the Splunk platform, as normalized data allows for consistent analysis, reporting, and integration across different data sources.

Data normalization process

  • Consistent Format: Data can be received from diverse sources, each with its own format. During normalization, the data is transformed into a uniform format. For example, if different data sources use different date formats (MM/DD/YYYY and DD-MM-YYYY), normalization would involve converting them all to a standardized format (YYYY-MM-DD).
  • Standardized Units: Normalize units of measurement to ensure consistency. This is particularly important when dealing with numerical data, such as converting measurements from metric to imperial units or vice versa.
  • Field Naming Conventions: Ensure consistent field naming across different data sources. For example, if one source uses "IP_Address" and another uses "Source_IP," normalization involves mapping these variations to a single, standardized field name.
  • Data Enrichment: As part of normalization, you might enrich data by adding contextual information.

Importance of data normalization in compliance with Splunk's Common Information Model (CIM)

In the context of CIM compliance, data normalization becomes even more crucial to ensure interoperability and consistency across different security-related data sources. CIM is a standardized framework for organizing data into a common format. It enables interoperability between different security solutions by providing a consistent model for data. When normalizing data for CIM compliance, you're aligning your data with CIM's predefined data structures, which allows for seamless integration and correlation of events across various sources.

For example, if you're collecting logs from different security devices like firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and antivirus solutions, each might have its own unique data structure. By normalizing the data to CIM's standard, you're ensuring that these different sources can be easily correlated and analyzed together.

In the context of the Splunk platform, data normalization for CIM compliance involves mapping your data fields to the CIM's standardized fields. This mapping ensures that your data fits into the CIM data model and can be effectively used with CIM-compliant apps and searches. CIM compliance enhances your ability to perform security analytics, threat detection, and incident response by providing a unified view of security-related data.

Data enrichment

Data enrichment is the process of enhancing existing data with additional context, information, or attributes to make it more valuable and meaningful for analysis and decision-making. In the context of the Splunk platform and data management, data enrichment plays a large role in improving the quality, relevance, and usability of the data you collect and analyze.

Context-based enrichment

  • Geolocation Data: Adding geographical context to data can provide insights into the geographic origin of events. For example, enriching IP addresses with geolocation information can help you understand where certain activities are occurring.
  • External Data Sources: Enriching data with information from external sources can provide a broader context. For instance, you might enrich user data with social media profiles or industry-related data to gain a better understanding of user behavior.
  • Threat Intelligence Feeds: Enriching security-related data with threat intelligence feeds can help identify known malicious IPs, domains, or URLs, aiding in the early detection of potential security threats.

Business-specific logic enrichment

  • Derived Fields: Enrichment can involve creating new fields or attributes based on existing data. For example, you might create a "Customer Segment" field based on customer purchase history and demographics.
  • Calculated Fields: Enrichment can also include performing calculations on existing data to generate new insights. For instance, calculating the average transaction value from historical sales data can provide valuable business insights.

Benefits of enrichment

  • Improved Analysis: Enriched data provides more context and depth, enabling more accurate and insightful analysis. This leads to better decision-making and actionable insights.
  • Enhanced Correlation: Enrichment helps correlate data from different sources by adding common attributes. This is especially important in security and operational contexts where identifying relationships between events is crucial.
  • Better Visualization: Enriched data can lead to more meaningful visualizations. For example, visualizing sales data enriched with customer demographics can reveal patterns and trends.
  • Advanced Analytics: Enriched data supports advanced analytics, machine learning, and predictive modeling by providing a more comprehensive view of the data.

Methods of enrichment

  • Lookup Tables: You can use lookup tables to enrich IP addresses with geolocation data.
  • Scripted Inputs: You can use scripted inputs to fetch external data from API.
  • Custom Search Commands: You can develop search commands to perform specific enrichments on data during analysis.

Data transformation

Data transformation can be a crucial step in the data management process, especially when dealing with data collected from diverse sources with varying structures and formats. In the context of the Splunk platform and data management, data transformation involves reshaping and reorganizing data to make it more suitable for analysis, reporting, and other purposes.

Key aspects of data transformation

  • Aggregation: Aggregating data involves combining multiple data records into a summary or aggregated view. This can be done to calculate totals, averages, counts, or other aggregated metrics. For example, transforming daily sales data into monthly or quarterly aggregates can provide a higher-level overview.
  • Field Merging: Sometimes, data from different sources might have related information stored in separate fields. Data transformation might involve merging these fields to consolidate related data. For instance, merging "First Name" and "Last Name" fields into a single "Full Name" field.
  • Splitting Data: In some cases, data might need to be split into different dimensions for analysis. For example, transforming a date field into separate fields for year, month, and day can allow for time-based analysis.
  • Normalization: Data normalization involves standardizing data values. This is especially important when dealing with data from multiple sources that use different units of measurement. For example, one system might use "usr_name" while another uses "username" to indicate a user's name; normalization would involve mapping these differing fields to a common field name, such as "user_name," to facilitate unified searches and analytics.

Benefits of data transformation

  • Improved Analysis: Transformed data is more structured and aligned with analysis requirements, enabling more accurate and insightful results.
  • Enhanced Compatibility: Transformation ensures that data from diverse sources can be integrated and analyzed together, even if they have different structures.
  • Efficient Storage: Aggregating and summarizing data can lead to reduced data volumes, making storage more efficient.
  • Simplified Reporting: Transformed data is often more suitable for creating reports and visualizations that highlight key insights.

Versioning and auditing

Implementing version control for your data onboarding scripts and configurations is a crucial practice in data management and governance. Here's why versioning and auditing are important and how they can benefit your data onboarding processes:

Version control

Version control, often managed through tools like Git, is a systematic way of tracking changes to your scripts, configurations, and any other code-related assets. In the context of data onboarding, version control is essential for several reasons.

  • Change Tracking: Version control allows you to keep a historical record of every change made to your data onboarding scripts. This includes modifications, additions, and deletions.
  • Collaboration: If multiple team members are involved in managing data onboarding, version control enables collaborative work. Team members can work on separate branches, making changes without directly impacting the main codebase until they are ready.
  • Error Tracking: In case an issue arises after a change is implemented, version control helps you identify the exact change that might have caused the problem. This speeds up the process of debugging and resolving issues.
  • Reversion: If a change leads to unexpected results or issues, version control allows you to revert to a previous working version of the scripts. This is particularly helpful in quickly rolling back changes to maintain data integrity.


Here's why auditing matters:

  • Compliance: In regulated industries, auditing helps ensure that your data onboarding processes adhere to regulatory requirements. Having a record of changes and who made them is crucial for demonstrating compliance.
  • Accountability: Auditing adds a layer of accountability. Knowing that changes are being tracked and reviewed can encourage responsible practices among team members.
  • Root Cause Analysis: When an issue arises, auditing can help pinpoint the root cause. It allows you to trace back when and by whom a specific change was made, aiding in troubleshooting.
  • Process Improvement: By analyzing the history of changes and their impact, you can identify areas for process improvement and optimize your data onboarding procedures over time.

Data quality monitoring

Data quality monitoring involves consistently assessing the quality of the data you have onboarded into your system to ensure that it meets the desired standards.

Importance of data quality monitoring

Maintaining high-quality data is essential for making informed decisions, ensuring accurate analysis, and deriving meaningful insights. Poor-quality data can lead to erroneous conclusions, misguided strategies, and operational inefficiencies. Data quality monitoring helps to:

  • Detect Inaccuracies: Data quality issues can range from missing values to inconsistencies and errors. Monitoring allows you to catch these issues before they affect downstream processes or negatively impact your analyses and decisions.
  • Operational Efficiency: Addressing data quality issues promptly reduces the time and effort required to correct larger-scale problems later.
  • Maintain Trust: Accurate and consistent data builds trust among users, stakeholders, and decision-makers who rely on the information provided by the data.
  • Enhance Decision-Making: Reliable data leads to more accurate insights, enabling better decision-making and informed strategies.
  • Compliance: In regulated industries, data quality is often a compliance requirement. Monitoring ensures that your data meets these standards.

Data quality monitoring process

  1. Define Metrics: Establish clear metrics and criteria that define what constitutes high-quality data for your organization. This could include accuracy, completeness, consistency, and timeliness.
  2. Set Up Monitoring: Implement tools, scripts, or solutions that regularly assess the data against the defined metrics. This could involve automated checks or manual reviews.
  3. Real-Time Alerts: Configure real-time alerts that notify you when data quality issues are detected. These alerts could be sent via email, dashboards, or integration with incident management systems.
  4. Anomaly Detection: Use anomaly detection techniques to identify data points that deviate significantly from the expected patterns. This can help you catch subtle issues that might not be immediately obvious.
  5. Root Cause Analysis: When issues are flagged, conduct root cause analysis to understand the underlying reasons for the data quality problems.
  6. Immediate Remediation: After issues are identified and their root causes determined, take immediate action to rectify the data. This could involve data cleansing, normalization, or re-onboarding.
  7. Continuous Improvement: Regularly review the data quality monitoring process itself. Are the metrics still relevant? Are new issues arising that need to be addressed?

Data quality monitoring is a proactive practice that ensures the integrity of your data. By establishing metrics, setting up monitoring processes, and promptly addressing issues, you can maintain accurate, consistent, and reliable data for your organization's decision-making and operational needs.


Documenting the data onboarding process ensures transparency, consistency, and effective management of the entire data lifecycle. This documentation acts as a comprehensive guide that captures the various aspects of the data onboarding process, making it easier to understand, replicate, and improve over time.

Importance of documentation

  • Consistency: Documenting the data onboarding process ensures that the same steps are followed consistently each time new data is brought into the system. This minimizes errors and discrepancies that can arise from variations in execution.
  • Knowledge Transfer: When team members change or new members join, comprehensive documentation allows for a smooth transfer of knowledge, helping team members to quickly understand the process and follow best practices.
  • Future Reference: Documentation serves as a reference for the future. If issues arise or improvements are needed, the documented process provides insights into how the onboarding was originally set up.
  • Enhanced Collaboration: Documentation fosters collaboration among team members as they can easily share insights, suggest improvements, and work together more effectively.
  • Continuous Improvement: Documented processes can be reviewed periodically, leading to refinements and enhancements. These improvements contribute to the overall efficiency of data onboarding.
  • Reduced Dependency: Relying solely on individual expertise can create dependency on specific team members. Documentation reduces this dependency and empowers the entire team to execute the process effectively.
  • Risk Mitigation: In case of issues or discrepancies, documentation serves as a valuable reference point to identify the root cause and find effective solutions.

Key elements of documentation

  • Validation Rules: Clearly outline the rules and criteria used to validate the data during onboarding. This includes defining acceptable data formats, ranges, and any specific conditions.
  • Transformation Logic: Document how the data is transformed from its source format to the desired target format. Include details about calculations, aggregations, and any data modifications.
  • Enrichment Sources: Specify where and how additional context or information is added to the data. This could involve referencing external data sources, APIs, or business-specific logic.
  • Workflow Sequence: Detail the sequence of steps in the onboarding process. This includes the order in which validation, transformation, and enrichment occur.
  • Dependencies: If the onboarding process relies on external systems, tools, or scripts, document these dependencies to ensure that everyone is aware of the interconnected components.
  • Parameters and Configurations: Document the parameters, settings, and configurations used during data onboarding. This ensures that these settings can be accurately replicated or adjusted as needed.
  • Error Handling: Describe the strategies for handling errors or exceptions that might occur during the onboarding process. This could involve error logging, notifications, or automated retries.

By implementing these standardized data onboarding procedures, you establish a foundation of reliable and consistent data in your Splunk platform environment. This, in turn, supports accurate analysis, reporting, and decision-making, while adhering to data management and governance best practices.

Helpful resources

Splunk OnDemand Services: Use these credit-based services for direct access to Splunk technical consultants with a variety of technical services from a pre-defined catalog. Most customers have OnDemand Services per their license support plan. Engage the ODS team at if you require assistance.

Establishing data retention policies

Data retention, at its core, refers to the policies and practices that determine how long data is stored and retained within the Splunk platform. An integral part of data management is that only relevant data is stored, while outdated or unnecessary data is systematically purged. However, retention isn't just about storage. It's about striking the right balance between resource utilization, data availability for analysis, and compliance with internal and external regulations.

The Splunk platform is often flooded with vast amounts of data. In this context, data retention isn't a mere feature, it's an integral part of data management that ensures only relevant data is stored, while outdated or unnecessary data is systematically purged.

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This section covers the following data retention topics:

  1. Defining the lifecycle of data in the Splunk platform
  2. Identifying stakeholders for data retention discussions
  3. Defining data retention policies
  4. Implementing data retention in the Splunk platform
  5. Securely deleting data
  6. Monitoring and auditing data retention practices

Defining the lifecycle of data in the Splunk platform

  • Ingestion: The journey of data in the Splunk platform begins with ingestion. As data streams in, the Splunk platform indexes it, making the raw data searchable and analyzable. During this phase, you must ensure data is categorized correctly and the right meta-information is associated with it, as this impacts retention decisions later on.
  • Storage and Analysis: After it is ingested, data resides in the indexes and is available for analysis. In the indexes, data can be subjected to numerous operations: searches, reports, alerts, and more. Data retention policies during this phase revolve around optimizing storage, ensuring that frequently accessed data is readily available, while less critical data might be moved to slower, more cost-effective storage.
  • Aging and Rolling: As data ages and passes the threshold defined by the retention policies, it transitions between several buckets within the Splunk platform. From "hot" to "warm," then "cold," and possibly even to "frozen," each stage represents a different storage and accessibility status. This systematic aging and rolling process, driven by the Splunk platform's configurations, ensures efficient storage use.
  • Deletion or Archival: The final stage in the data lifecycle is its removal from active storage. Based on the retention policy, after data surpasses its defined lifespan, the Splunk platform either deletes it or moves it to a "frozen" state, which could mean archival for long-term storage or complete removal.

This lifecycle underscores the dynamic nature of data within the Splunk platform. By understanding each stage, from the point of ingestion to eventual deletion or archival, you can better tailor your data retention policies, ensuring they are both compliant with regulations and efficient in terms of storage resource management.

Identifying stakeholders for data retention discussions

Misalignment among stakeholders can result in inefficiencies, increased costs, or even legal repercussions. Here's why identifying stakeholders from multiple business units is essential:

  • Consistency: Ensuring that retention policies are uniform across different datasets and departments avoids confusion and potential errors.
  • Compliance: With the combined expertise of IT and legal teams, your organization can ensure its policies are both technically feasible and legally compliant.
  • Optimization: By understanding the specific data needs of various business units, IT can optimize storage, ensuring critical data is readily available while archiving or deleting outdated information.

Key stakeholders typically include:

  • IT Teams: Responsible for the technical implementation and maintenance of the Splunk platform, they possess firsthand knowledge of the platform's capabilities, limitations, and current configurations.
  • Legal and Compliance Units: They ensure that data retention practices adhere to regulatory requirements and organizational legal obligations. Their input is crucial in setting minimum and maximum retention periods.
  • Business Units: Different departments might have varying needs concerning data accessibility and retention. For instance, the marketing team's requirements might differ considerably from those of the finance department.

By involving the right stakeholders and fostering open communication, organizations can craft data retention policies in the Splunk platform that are both effective and reflective of their unique operational and compliance needs.

Defining data retention policies

Data retention policies provide a structured approach to managing the duration for which data is stored, ensuring it's available when needed but removed when no longer necessary. Here's a detailed look into the elements to consider when defining these policies.

  • Regulatory and Compliance Requirements: Different industries and regions have distinct laws and regulations dictating the minimum or maximum periods for retaining certain data types. For instance, financial transaction data might have a different retention period than consumer interaction data due to financial regulations. Regularly review industry-specific guidelines and regional data protection laws to ensure that your policies remain compliant.
  • Business Needs and Operational Requirements: Not all data has the same value or utility over time. While some datasets might be crucial for long-term trend analysis, others might lose their relevance quickly. Collaborate with various departments to learn how often they access older data and the implications of not having that data available.
  • Storage Constraints and Costs: While retaining data can be beneficial, be mindful of the associated costs, both in terms of physical storage and potential performance implications. Analyze the growth rate of your data, project future storage needs, and factor in costs to determine an economically feasible retention period.

Workshops and sessions to gather requirements

To capture the diverse needs and considerations for data retention, conduct the following requirements gathering sessions:

  • Initial Workshops: Begin with broad sessions, introducing the goals of the data retention initiative and gathering preliminary insights from different teams.
  • Focused Discussions: Conduct more in-depth discussions with individual departments or teams, diving into their specific data needs, access frequencies, and retention requirements.
  • Feedback Loops: After drafting an initial retention policy, share it with stakeholders for feedback. This iterative process helps refine the policy, ensuring it's both comprehensive and practical.

Documenting policies clearly and comprehensively

After you've settled on a data retention policy, document it in a clear and accessible manner. This documentation should:

  • Define the different data categories.
  • Specify the retention period for each category.
  • Detail the procedures for data deletion or archival.
  • Highlight any exceptions or special cases.

Regularly review and update this documentation, especially when there are changes in business operations, regulatory environments, or technological infrastructures.

Implementing data retention in the Splunk platform

Effective data management within the Splunk platform revolves around understanding the lifecycle of data and configuring the platform to respect your established retention policies. To accomplish this, you must understand the various data bucket types in the Splunk platform and the tools available to tailor retention settings.

Configuring index settings for retention

The Splunk platform offers granular controls to define the behavior of each bucket type:

Utilize the indexes.conf file to set parameters like maxHotSpanSecs for hot buckets or frozenTimePeriodInSecs to determine the age at which data transitions to the frozen state.

The maxHotSpanSecs is an advanced setting that should be set with care and understanding of the characteristics of your data.

Remember to consider both the size and age of data when defining retention settings. Depending on your policies, either parameter might trigger a transition between bucket states.

Example Scenario

An organization has identified a specific use-case that requires a custom Splunk platform index configuration. The index, named myindex, will be receiving a data volume of approximately 5GB/day. Their retention requirements for this index are specific:

  • Hot Buckets: Data should only stay in the hot bucket for a maximum duration of 24 hours before transitioning to the warm bucket.
  • Warm Buckets: After leaving the hot bucket, data should reside in the warm bucket for 30 days.
  • Cold Buckets: Post the warm bucket phase, the data should transition into cold storage, where it will remain for another 30 days.
  • Frozen Data: After its stint in cold storage, instead of deleting the data, we intend to archive it for possible future needs.

To achieve this, your organization needs to customize the the Splunk platform indexes.conf file for myindex.

homePath = $Splunk_DB/myindex/db
coldPath = $Splunk_DB/myindex/colddb
thawedPath = $Splunk_DB/myindex/thaweddb
maxDataSize = 5000
frozenTimePeriodInSecs = 5184000  # 60 days (30 days in warm + 30 days in cold)
maxHotSpanSecs = 86400  # 24 hours
maxWarmDBCount = 30  # Since we have 5GB/day and want to retain for 30 days in warm
# Additional settings might be required depending on where you want to archive the data, such as:
coldToFrozenDir = /path/to/my/archive/location
coldToFrozenScript = /path/to/my/archive/script

Securely deleting data

Deleting data securely isn't just about making space or managing storage; it's about ensuring that sensitive information doesn't fall into the wrong hands or get misused post-deletion.

The imperative of secure data deletion

Every piece of data that flows into the Splunk platform might contain information of varying sensitivity levels. Whether it's personally identifiable information (PII), business intellectual property, or operational insights, after the decision to delete it is made, its removal should be thorough and irreversible. Secure data deletion is:

  • Mandatory for Compliance: Many regulatory standards, like GDPR, HIPAA, and others, mandate secure data erasure as part of their compliance requirements.
  • Critical for Privacy: In the case of data breaches, securely deleted data offers no value to malicious actors, ensuring further data safety.
  • Essential for Trust: Customers, stakeholders, and partners are more likely to trust organizations that take every facet of data security, including its deletion, seriously.

Data deletion in the Splunk platform

The Splunk platform offers a set of tools and configurations that assist in data management, including its deletion.

  • Bucket Deletion: Data in the Splunk platform resides in buckets based on its age and status (hot, warm, cold, etc.). Deleting buckets is one method to remove data, but this doesn't ensure secure erasure.
  • Expire and Delete: Configurations in indexes.conf allow for automatic data aging out and deletion after a set period, defined by the frozenTimePeriodInSecs setting.
  • Manual Deletion: The Splunk platform provides SPL commands like delete to remove indexed data. But remember, using the delete command doesn't remove the data physically from disk but marks it non-searchable.

Ensuring secure erasure

While the Splunk platform provides tools for data deletion, ensuring the data is irrecoverable post-deletion requires additional steps:

  • Overwriting Data: Secure deletion tools work by overwriting the storage space occupied by the data multiple times with random patterns, ensuring that data recovery tools cannot retrieve the original data.
  • Physical Destruction: For highly sensitive data, after secure deletion, organizations sometimes opt for physical destruction of storage devices.
  • Encryption: Data encrypted at rest ensures that even if someone could retrieve deleted data, they wouldn't decipher its content without the encryption key.

By understanding the tools and techniques available within the Splunk platform, coupled with industry best practices, organizations can confidently manage and, when necessary, erase data securely.

Monitoring and auditing data retention practices

Properly setting up data retention practices in the Splunk platform is the first step in a broader journey. To ensure the ongoing efficacy and compliance of these practices, active monitoring and periodic auditing is a must.

Alerts and reports on data age

To actively manage and oversee data retention, you can:

  • Set Up Alerts: Create specific alerts in the Splunk platform when data in an index reaches its maximum age limit or is about to. This proactive measure allows administrators to take timely action, be it data backup, transfer, or deletion.
  • Generate Age Reports: Create periodic reports that offer insights into the age of data across various indexes. These reports can help identify anomalies or deviations from the retention policy.

Periodic review of retention settings

Data retention is not a static operation, and as organizational needs evolve, so too should retention practices. You should employ the following review processes:

  • Scheduled Reviews: Organize regular reviews of your Splunk platform's indexes.conf and other retention-related configurations to ensure they align with the current policy and operational needs.
  • Change Management: Any changes to retention settings should be documented, with reasons for the change, the individuals involved, and the date of the change. This aids in audit trails and provides clarity for future reviews.

The act of retaining data in the Splunk platform should be as deliberate and standardized as the act of deleting it. With the tools and strategies at hand, administrators can ensure that data retention practices are transparent, traceable, and in alignment with both policy directives and operational necessities.

Helpful resources

Splunk OnDemand Services: Use these credit-based services for direct access to Splunk technical consultants with a variety of technical services from a pre-defined catalog. Most customers have OnDemand Services per their license support plan. Engage the ODS team at if you require assistance.

Classifying and tagging data

Effectively managing and organizing information has never been more important. One of the foundational pillars of such management is classifying data.

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in this section you will learn

  1. Importance of data classification
  2. Role of tagging in effective data governance within the Splunk platform
  3. Criteria for data classification
  4. Tagging mechanism in the Splunk platform
  5. Implement data classification and tagging
  6. Best practices for data classification and tagging

Importance of data classification

By systematically categorizing information based on its sensitivity, criticality, or other criteria, organizations can see the following benefits:

  • Security: Properly classified data helps in implementing appropriate security controls. For instance, sensitive data might require encryption, strict access controls, or special handling during storage and transfer.
  • Compliance: Regulatory standards often mandate the treatment of specific types of data. By classifying data, organizations can ensure that they adhere to the respective standards, avoiding potential non-compliance penalties.
  • Operational Efficiency: Within the Splunk platform, classified data can accelerate search operations, facilitate more accurate analytics, and ensure that resources aren't wasted processing non-pertinent data.
  • Risk Management: Classification aids in identifying data that, if compromised, could pose significant risks to an organization. By understanding which datasets are of high criticality or sensitivity, organizations can prioritize their protection efforts accordingly.

At its core, data classification involves categorizing data into distinct categories based on its type, sensitivity, and criticality. This categorization aids in ensuring that each data type is handled and processed in a manner commensurate with its importance and sensitivity. Furthermore, the ability of the Splunk platform to extract insights and provide operational intelligence is significantly amplified when data is systematically classified. Finally, with appropriate classification, the Splunk platform users can effectively navigate, filter, and analyze relevant datasets, ensuring that data-driven decisions are grounded in relevant and properly categorized information.

Role of tagging in effective data governance within the Splunk platform

The Splunk platform manages vast quantities of diverse data. In this environment, tagging serves as a key mechanism for categorization and identification. By applying tags or labels to data, the Splunk platform users can:

  • Enhance Search Capabilities: Navigate through vast datasets with ease, retrieving precisely the information they seek.
  • Achieve Data Governance: Assign access controls and data handling protocols based on tags, ensuring each data subset is treated as per its classification.
  • Audit & Review: Track how different data sets are accessed and used, ensuring transparency and accountability in operations.

Criteria for data classification

To facilitate a systematic approach to classifying data, several criteria can be applied. These criteria don't merely impose a structure on data but ensure that every piece of information is treated in accordance with its inherent value and sensitivity.

Sensitivity levels

Sensitivity levels primarily revolve around the potential impact of unauthorized access or disclosure. Let's explore the defined categories:

  • Public: This classification denotes data that is intended for general access and poses little to no risk if exposed. Examples might include promotional material, publicly released reports, or generic company information.
  • Internal: Data under this classification is not for public consumption but is generally accessible within an organization. It might include internal memos, minutes of general meetings, or intranet content.
  • Confidential: This classification is reserved for data that, if disclosed, could result in harm to individuals or your organization. Examples might include financial reports, strategic plans, or proprietary research.
  • Restricted: The highest sensitivity level, restricted data requires the strictest handling protocols. Breaches at this level could lead to severe legal, financial, or reputational ramifications. Such data could include personally identifiable information (PII), security protocols, or critical system credentials.


Criticality speaks to the importance of data in supporting core organizational functions and the potential impact if such data were unavailable or compromised.

  • High: Data that is indispensable for core business functions. Its loss or corruption could halt operations, entail significant financial repercussions, or breach regulatory standards.
  • Medium: Important data that supports various organizational functions. While its unavailability might disrupt some operations, contingency measures can usually manage such disruptions.
  • Low: Data of this nature might be useful for specific tasks or reference but doesn't significantly impact broader operations if lost or unavailable.

Data types

In the context of the Splunk platform, defining data types assists users in identifying and applying suitable processing, storage, and protection measures.

  • Personal Data: Information that can identify an individual. This might include names, addresses, social security numbers, and more. Given its sensitive nature, personal data often has stringent compliance and protection requirements.
  • Business Data: Data related to an organization's operations, strategy, and performance. This can range from financial records and business strategies to customer data.
  • System Logs: These are records generated by systems, networks, and applications. They provide insights into system operations, user activities, and potential security incidents. While they might not always contain overtly sensitive information, their analysis can reveal critical insights about system health and security.

Through these classification criteria, Splunk platform administrators can ensure that each data point is treated with the appropriate level of care, access control, and security, paving the way for both operational efficiency and robust data protection.

The tagging mechanism in the Splunk platform

The Splunk platform can ingest, process, and analyze massive volumes of data. However, the challenge lies in effectively navigating and extracting precise information from this lake of information. Enter tagging, a tool as fundamental to data management as a compass is to navigation.

Role of data tags

At a basic level, tags are descriptive labels that you can assign to fields within events. They offer a layer of abstraction, allowing users to group field values into understandable and meaningful categories. For instance, rather than remember specific IP addresses that belong to a corporate network, you might simply tag them as "internal". When searching, the tag provides a shortcut, a semantic layer that simplifies query formulation and enhances understanding.

Benefits of tagging

  • Enhanced Search Capabilities: With tags in place, users can search by the tag name, enabling them to retrieve a set of results that match a broader category, rather than an explicit value. This not only streamlines queries but can also lead to discoveries that might be overlooked when focusing too narrowly.
  • Data Governance: In large organizations, especially, where multiple departments and teams access the Splunk platform, tags standardize nomenclature, ensure consistent interpretations of data, and promote best practices in data handling and analytics.
  • Access Control: Administrators can define roles that have specific access to tagged data. This ensures that users only interact with data relevant to their function, enhancing both security and operational efficiency.

How tags work in the Splunk platform

The tagging mechanism in the Splunk platform is anchored in its ability to associate tags with field values and event types:

  • Fields: In the Splunk platform, an event—a single row of data—is made up of fields. These fields can be extracted from the raw data or calculated during search time. When a user assigns a tag to a specific field value, any event containing that field value inherits the tag. This aids in broadening or narrowing searches based on these categorizations.
  • Event Types: The Splunk platform allows users to define event types, which are essentially search that match specific events. Users can tag these event types, making it easier to categorize and search for broad patterns or types of activities in their data.

To provide an example: Imagine an organization that wants to monitor failed login attempts. They could define an event type for events that contain error codes related to failed logins. By tagging this event type as "login_failure," users can quickly retrieve all related events, even if the underlying error codes differ.

In essence, the tagging mechanism in the Splunk platform transforms a technical landscape of values and codes into a more human-friendly environment, optimized for comprehension, navigation, and analysis.

Implement data classification and tagging

Proper data classification and tagging within the Splunk platform not only streamline operations but also bolster security and compliance efforts. Implementing these practices involves a methodical approach, and the following steps should guide you through this journey.

Analyzing and categorizing data sources

Before diving into classification, it's important to have a clear understanding of the types and sources of data flowing into the Splunk platform. Use the following analysis to get this information:

  1. Inventory Data Sources: Begin by listing all data sources feeding into the Splunk platform. This could range from system logs, application logs, network telemetry, to business transaction data.
  2. Understand Data Characteristics: For each data source, identify its general characteristics. What kind of information does it hold? Who accesses it? How often is it updated?
  3. Determine Sensitivity and Criticality: Recognize the inherent value and sensitivity of the data. While some data might be public and low-risk, other datasets could contain sensitive personal or business information.

Designing a classification schema relevant to organizational needs

After you have a comprehensive view of your data landscape, design a classification schema tailored to your organization's unique needs.

  • Standardize Classification Levels: Define clear and distinct levels of classification, such as Public, Internal, Confidential, and Restricted.
  • Define Criteria for Each Level: Establish clear criteria that determine the classification level of each piece of data. For example, any data subject to regulatory requirements might automatically be classified as 'Restricted'.
  • Document the Schema: Ensure that the classification schema is well-documented and accessible to all relevant personnel. This aids in consistent application and understanding across your organization.

Applying tags or labels

With a classification schema in hand, you can now translate it into actionable tags or labels within the Splunk platform.

  • Choose Descriptive Tags: Tags should be self-explanatory to ensure they are applied consistently and understood universally within your organization.
  • Associate Tags with Field Values or Event Types: Using the Splunk platform's UI, associate your defined tags with specific field values or event types, as discussed in the previous section.
  • Test and Validate: Before rolling out tagging on a large scale, test the process on a subset of data. Validate that tags are applied correctly and enhance search and access as intended.

Regularly reviewing and updating classification standards

Data classification is not a set-it-and-forget-it exercise. As organizational needs, data sources, and regulatory landscapes evolve, so too must your classification standards.

  • Schedule Regular Reviews: Establish a timeline, perhaps annually or biannually, to review your classification schema and tagging practices.
  • Incorporate Feedback: Engage with the Splunk platform users and gather feedback on the effectiveness and utility of the current classification and tagging system.
  • Adjust as Necessary: Make necessary adjustments to classification levels, criteria, or tags to reflect changes in data, organizational objectives, or external requirements.

A systematic approach to data classification and tagging in the Splunk platform not only enhances data governance but also fosters a culture of security and compliance. By understanding your data, creating a relevant schema, implementing tags effectively, and committing to ongoing refinement, you position your organization for streamlined operations and heightened data protection.

Best practices for data classification and tagging

The following best practices have been identified to assist organizations in optimizing their data classification and tagging efforts in the Splunk platform.

Ensuring alignment with regulatory and organizational policies

The Splunk platform often ingests data that might be subject to various regulatory requirements, from GDPR to HIPAA. These requirements can have direct implications on how data should be classified and retained.

  • Stay Updated on Regulatory Changes: Regularly review and monitor updates or changes in data-related regulations that pertain to your industry or geography.
  • Collaborate with Legal and Compliance Teams: Establish open channels of communication with legal and compliance departments to ensure that data classification in your Splunk environment aligns with legal interpretations and requirements.
  • Embed Policies in Classification Criteria: Ensure that regulatory requirements are integrated into the criteria that determine data classification levels.

Educating Splunk platform knowledge managers on classification standards

For classification and tagging to be effective, all Splunk platform knowledge managers must understand and adhere to established standards.

  • Conduct Regular Training Sessions: Offer periodic training sessions that explain the significance of classification, the defined levels, and their application.
  • Provide Clear Documentation: Make classification and tagging documentation easily accessible to all the Splunk platform users, ensuring they have a reference point when in doubt.
  • Reiterate the Importance: Emphasize the critical role of correct data classification in ensuring data security, compliance, and efficient the Splunk platform operations.

Using automated tools

Leveraging automation can greatly enhance the accuracy and efficiency of the classification process, especially as data volumes grow. Here are some options:

  • Integrate Machine Learning and AI: The Splunk Machine Learning Toolkit and other third-party tools can help in automated data pattern recognition, aiding in classification.
  • Establish Automated Tagging Rules: Where consistent patterns are identified, set up automated rules within the Splunk platform to apply appropriate index time tags based on incoming data attributes.
  • Regularly Review Automated Classifications: While automation can expedite processes, you should periodically review and validate the classifications made by automated tools to ensure accuracy.

Maintaining a centralized documentation of classification schema and tag definitions

Documenting your classification standards and tag definitions isn't just about compliance, it's about ensuring consistency and clarity across your organization.

  • Central Repository: Maintain a centralized, regularly updated repository (version controlled, preferably) that holds all documentation related to data classification and tagging.
  • Ensure Accessibility: Ensure that this documentation is accessible to all relevant the Splunk platform users and stakeholders, fostering a unified approach to data handling.
  • Include Real-world Examples: Within the documentation, provide real-world examples of data types and their corresponding classification and tags, offering clarity and guidance to users.

Incorporating these best practices into your Splunk platform data classification and tagging initiatives ensures operational efficiency, robust compliance and security postures. By aligning with regulations, educating users, leveraging automation, and maintaining comprehensive documentation, organizations can optimize the value derived from their the Splunk platform deployments.

Role-based access control (RBAC)

Implementing role-based access control in Splunk software is crucial for secure and efficient data management. This guide covers essential steps for setting up RBAC, from assessing user roles to configuring authentication and regular audits.

►Click here to read more.

This section outlines the following steps in establishing role-based access control:

  1. Assessing user roles and responsibilities
  2. Understanding predefined roles
  3. Creating custom roles
  4. Configuring role-based authentication
  5. Auditing and reviewing regularly

Assessing user roles and responsibilities

Before setting up RBAC, begin by assessing your organization's various roles and responsibilities. Identify key user groups and the tasks they need to perform in the Splunk platform. Categorize users into roles that reflect their job functions, such as administrators, analysts, and data engineers. This initial assessment forms the foundation for creating custom roles with specific access levels. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to assess user roles and responsibilities:

  1. Identify Key Stakeholders: Begin by identifying key stakeholders, teams, and departments within your organization that interact with the Splunk platform. These could include IT administrators, data analysts, security teams, and business users.
  2. Conduct Stakeholder Interviews: Schedule interviews with representatives from each stakeholder group to gather insights into their responsibilities and how they interact with the Splunk platform. Ask them about their specific data access needs, what tasks they perform, and validate the level of access required to carry out their responsibilities effectively.
  3. Review Existing Documentation: Examine any existing documentation, job descriptions, or role profiles that outline the responsibilities of various teams and individuals. This can provide valuable information about the tasks and data access requirements associated with each role.
  4. Analyze Data Access Patterns: Analyze historical data access patterns (if available) to identify common queries, searches, and reports used by different teams. This analysis can shed light on the type of data each role typically accesses and the level of permissions they require.
  5. Collaborate with IT and Security Teams: Work closely with IT and security teams to understand any specific security and compliance requirements that might impact data access and user roles. Consider data sensitivity and regulatory constraints while defining access levels.
  6. Categorize User Groups: Based on the information gathered from interviews, documentation, and data analysis, categorize users into distinct groups or roles. Each role should represent a specific job function or set of responsibilities within your organization.
  7. Define Role Descriptions: Create clear role descriptions for each category, outlining the tasks, data access, and responsibilities associated with the role. Ensure that each role description is well-defined and aligns with your organization's overall objectives.
  8. Determine Role Hierarchy: Establish a role hierarchy to define the relationships between different roles. Some roles might have higher privileges and capabilities, and it's essential to understand how roles interact and inherit permissions.
  9. Validate Role Assessments: Validate the role assessments with the stakeholders to ensure accuracy and completeness. Seek feedback from teams to identify any discrepancies or additional access requirements.
  10. Document the Findings: Document the results of the role assessment, including role descriptions, data access requirements, and role hierarchy. This documentation will serve as a reference for setting up RBAC and performing future audits.

Understanding predefined roles

Predefined roles are pre-configured role templates provided by Splunk that come with specific capabilities and permissions. These roles serve as a starting point for assigning access levels to users based on their responsibilities within your organization. Here's how your organization can understand predefined roles:

  1. Access Documentation: The Table of Splunk platform capabilities in Splunk Docs contains detailed information about the predefined roles available in the Splunk platform and their respective capabilities.
  2. Review Role Definitions: Review the definitions and descriptions of each predefined role to understand their intended purpose and scope. For example, roles such as Admin, Power User, and others might have different levels of administrative access and data search capabilities.
  3. Identify Role Capabilities: Predefined roles come with certain privileges that determine the level of access (such as edit saved searches, access specific indexes, and create alerts) to platform resources. For instance, an admin might have capabilities to manage users and configurations, while a user might have capabilities limited to creating and running searches. Examine the capabilities associated with each predefined role.
  4. Evaluate Role Scenarios: Consider various scenarios within your organization and assess which predefined role aligns best with each scenario. For example, an IT administrator responsible for managing the entire Splunk deployment might require the "admin" role, while a data analyst focused on creating and running searches might fit the "user" role.
  5. Compare Role Overlaps: Identify any overlaps or redundancies between predefined roles. Ensure that users do not have multiple roles with conflicting capabilities that could lead to unintended access rights.
  6. Consider Customization: Starting from predefined roles provides a solid foundation; however, organizations often require tailored access permissions to align with their specific needs. Custom roles offer the flexibility to address unique access requirements without altering the out-of-the-box (OOTB) roles, which is considered a best practice. These custom roles can be crafted by combining capabilities from various predefined roles or by creating roles from scratch to ensure access restrictions cater to individual demands.
  7. Align with Organizational Policies: Ensure that the predefined roles align with your organization's security and compliance policies. Consider data sensitivity, regulatory requirements, and separation of duties while assigning roles to users.
  8. Perform User Role Mapping: Map the predefined roles to real users and their respective responsibilities within your organization. This exercise helps in visualizing the access levels and identifying any gaps or inconsistencies.
  9. Conduct Training: Train the relevant stakeholders, including IT administrators, security teams, and business users, on the predefined roles, their capabilities, and best practices for role-based access management.

Creating custom roles

  1. Navigate to the Splunk Web interface and access the Settings menu.
  2. Under Access Controls, select Roles to create custom roles tailored to your organization's needs.
  3. Define each role's capabilities, such as search permissions, index access, and administrative privileges.
  4. Leverage role inheritance to streamline the process and ensure consistency across roles.

For more detailed guidance, a complete step-by-step guide on how to create custom roles is described in Create and manage roles with Splunk Web.

Configuring role-based authentication

Integrate your organization's authentication method with Splunk Cloud Platform or Splunk Enterprise. Choose between LDAP or SAML, depending on your existing infrastructure and security requirements. LDAP provides authentication through your organization's existing LDAP server or Splunk native authentication, while SAML supports integration with compliant identity providers.


To set up LDAP authentication in the Splunk platform, follow the guidance in Set up user authentication with LDAP.

To manage user roles with LDAP, follow the guidance in Manage Splunk user roles with LDAP.


To setup SAML authentication in the Splunk platform, follow the guidance in Configure single sign-on with SAML.

To manage user roles with SAML, follow the guidance in Map groups on a SAML identity provider to Splunk roles.

Auditing and reviewing regularly

Maintaining RBAC effectiveness requires periodic audits and role reviews. Regularly assess user access rights and capabilities, ensuring they align with current job responsibilities. Remove access for users who no longer require specific privileges and update roles as organizational needs change. Here's how your organization can effectively conduct RBAC auditing and reviews:

  1. Define RBAC Policies and Objectives: Start by establishing clear RBAC policies and objectives that align with your organization's security and data access requirements. These policies should outline the roles, permissions, and responsibilities for each user or user group.
  2. Schedule Regular Audits: Set a schedule for conducting periodic RBAC audits. The frequency of audits might vary based on organizational needs, but it is generally recommended to perform them at least annually or whenever significant changes occur within your organization.
  3. Identify Audit Scope: Determine the scope of the audit, including the specific roles, users, and permissions that will be reviewed. Ensure that all critical areas, such as administrative privileges and access to sensitive data, are thoroughly assessed.
  4. Use RBAC Reports and Analytics: Leverage built-in reporting and analytics tools within the Splunk platform to generate RBAC-specific reports. These reports can help identify discrepancies, unauthorized access, and potential security risks.
  5. Review Access Requests and Changes: Evaluate access requests and changes made to user roles regularly. Ensure that all changes are properly authorized and align with the RBAC policies. Keep a record of these changes for future reference.
  6. Monitor User Activity: Monitor user activity and behavior to identify any anomalies or suspicious actions. Regularly review log data to track user access patterns and detect potential unauthorized activities.
  7. Conduct User Entitlement Reviews: Periodically review user entitlements to ensure that they still require access to their assigned roles and permissions. Remove any unnecessary access rights promptly.
  8. Validate Role Mappings: Verify that the mapping of LDAP groups or other external authentication sources to Splunk roles is accurate and up to date. Ensure that new users are assigned appropriate roles when added to LDAP groups.
  9. Involve Stakeholders: Involve relevant stakeholders, such as IT administrators, data owners, and business unit heads, in the RBAC review process. Collaborate with them to verify user access requirements and ensure compliance with security policies.
  10. Document Findings and Remediation Actions: Document the findings of the RBAC audit, including any discrepancies or areas for improvement. Implement remediation actions promptly to address any identified issues.
  11. Conduct Training and Awareness: Provide training and awareness sessions for users, administrators, and other personnel involved in the RBAC process. Ensure that they understand the importance of RBAC and their role in maintaining secure access controls.
  12. Continuously Improve RBAC Processes: Use the insights gained from the audit to refine and enhance RBAC processes. Regularly reassess RBAC policies and objectives to adapt to changing organizational needs and evolving security threats.

By following these steps, organizations can proactively manage RBAC configurations, enhance security, and maintain a robust and well-controlled Splunk environment. Regular RBAC auditing ensures that access controls remain effective and aligned with your organization's security and compliance goals.

Helpful resources

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